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IN A WORLD OF HYPOTHESIS WE SHOULD SEEK TANGIBLE PROOF IN FACTS

How the world viewed Natives of the Americas then, and how the world views Natives of the Americas now.

Before colonization and assimilation... the Invaders who came to our land documented our people by whatever means they had at the time. They documented our description without much bias in the early days of contact because they needed actual facts to bring back to those who in Europe sent them here to scout out our land to later take possession of it thru brute force. Its only later that bias came into play with the European's post assimilation description of our people as we were colonized by these foreigners. They later changes our description due to the fact that they preferred to showcase those of us who fit their agenda to show the world they have almost mixed some of us out of existence. Yet some of us remained in our land barely touched by those who came to steal our land, culture, and even at times our identity.

This article will show how full blood Natives have been kept out of public view since the reclassification by the federal and state governments from Native American to Black, Negro, Mulatto, or Colored over and over again hoping that those who are full blood Natives will forget who any of us really are if they kept it from us who lost oral history, or connection to family over time.

To be yourself in a world that is constantly trying to make you something else is the greatest accomplishment.

The World’s first photograph was taken in 1826 by a French scientist named Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. There are no photos of any kind available before 1826, so there are no documented photos of Native Americans until many years after 1826. There are however paintings and even woodcut depictions of Natives as old as 87 years after the European Invader came to our land. There are even earlier writings by explorers also depicting Natives with descriptions that do not in any way equal the whitenized biased view of what a Native of the Americas is supposed to look like based on a first contact point of view in comparison to what is the norm today. Most accounts of Natives from the early 1500’s are accounts of what Natives looked like before mixing with the African, the two types of Spaniards in Spain (Moor-Arab, and possibly Black African admixture) and the White Spaniard, as well as The Asian from Asia, and the White English Settlers from Europe who all have mingled their blood and genes with some of our people over time.

All original accounts of descriptions Natives have been forgotten or ignored, until now.

The Truth may shock some of you.

It is a fact that only after colonization by the Spanish and the English, and enslavement of the Black African, and the massive immigration of many people who are not Native to our land as The Asian, Middle Easterner, The White European, and the Black African we now have a mainstream, whitenized, and biased view of what a full blooded Native American is supposed to look like. As in the biased view of very light brown skinned Native with straight hair like the Southeast Asian who has the mainstream Native look of an either Asian-like features or European like features which American deems acceptable because it covers America’s agenda to conceal the true look of Natives before colonization. An original look many blood Natives still have to this very day but assume the traits to be from a Native ancestor mixing with specifically the African or White race. An assumption based on not knowing the traits they possess are full blood Native traits and have nothing to do with being mixed with African or having any African ancestry or even White ancestry. If you know you have Native ancestry and don't look African and you can't find a White person close in your family then you are more than likely are not mixed with White nor do you have any African ancestry.

Fact: The first Africans came to our shore after 1492, and we have had no Black presence in our land at any point before this.

NO AFRICAN GENETIC CONTRIBUTIONS, CULTURE CONTRIBUTIONS, OR ANY OTHER CONTRIBUTIONS IN OUR LAND.


Fact: Native American's of the America's are dark skinned and have full lips and broad noses because of creation by The Creator... not because of any Black ancestry.

This article will prove to you that millions upon millions of full and mixed blood Native Americans have been reclassified by the U.S. federal census beginning in 1790 to this day, even thru vital records, to the names Black, Negro, Colored, Mulatto, and even Hispanic in some cases, and also White for those lighter skinned Natives who could "pass". This oppressive act was done by whites in government in order to bring down THE REAL Native American numbers in North America so we could feel like and believe we are small and defeated people, when we really are numbered in the millions.


FACTS IN REAL HISTORY THAT ARE NO LONGER HIDDEN:

 WALTER PLECKER BEGAN A PAPER GENOCIDE MOVEMENT THAT ALL 50 STATES IN AMERICA EVENTUALLY ALSO TOOK PART IN. WHITE CENSUS TAKERS AND VITAL RECORDS EMPLOYEES ALSO USED THEIR PENS TO WRITE NATIVE AMERICANS OUT OF STATE AND FEDERAL RACE RECORDS. THIS IS EXACTLY WHY SO MANY NATIVE AMERICANS "AND MANY FULL BLOODS AT THAT" SEE INCORRECT LABELS OF COLORED, NEGRO, BLACK, OR MULATTO ON CENSUS RECORDS AND BIRTH AND DEATH CERTIFICATES OF ANCESTORS.


"Plecker was a member of the Eugentics movement, and Plecker had an agenda targeted at Indians, mixed race individuals and Blacks in the State of Virginia. Plecker intentionally attempted to eliminate any evidence of any "Indians" in the State of Virginia, in order to purify the "white race". Plecker modified birth records in the State of Virginia, I learned that in some cases Plecker actually ordered any documentation record on any individual that indicated "Indian" destroyed, as well, Plecker threatened midwives that indicated "indian" as the race on the birth certificate.

"Walter Ashby Plecker was the first registrar of Virginia’s Bureau of Vital Statistics, which records births, marriages and deaths. He accepted the job in 1912. For the next 34 years, he led the effort to purify the white race in Virginia by forcing Indians and other nonwhites to classify themselves as blacks. It amounted to bureaucratic genocide."

"With the stroke of a pen, Plecker could write an individual into "Negro" status--and legal and social oblivion. Plecker was only too willing to exercise that power, thus making him a figure of dread to Indians in general, but particularly to the Powhatan remnants in Rockbridge and Amherst counties, until his retirement and subsequent death in 1946."

"Plecker's no-nonsense approach made him a celebrity within the eugenics movement, which was increasingly losing support among scientists and becoming a platform for white supremacy. He spoke around the country, was widely published and wrote to every governor in the nation to urge passage of racial laws just as tough as Virginia’s. He dined at the New York home of Harry H. Laughlin, the nation's leading eugenics advocate and an unabashed Nazi sympathizer." "In 1932, Plecker gave a keynote speech at the Third International Conference on Eugenics in New York. Among those in attendance was Ernst Rudin of Germany who, 11 months later, would help write Hitler's eugenics law." "In 1935, Plecker wrote to Walter Gross, the director of Germany’s Bureau of Human Betterment and Eugenics. He outlined Virginia’s racial purity laws and asked to be put on a mailing list for bulletins from Gross’ department. Plecker complimented the Third Reich for sterilizing 600 children in Algeria who were born to German women and black men. “I hope this work is complete and not one has been missed,” he wrote. “I sometimes regret that we have not the authority to put some measures in practice in Virginia."

"Plecker changed and/or destroyed labels on vital records to classify Indians as "colored, mongrel, mulatto," investigated the pedigrees of racially "suspect" citizens, and provided information to block or annul interracial marriages with Whites. He not only did this to Indians, but other races as well." "Knowledge of this historical development is vitally necessary for those who are searching their Native heritage to understand why records in the Virginia Bureau of Vital Statistics are incorrect or missing."

How the Afrocentric has helped the white man in his paper genocide of Native Americans...

EXCERPT FROM: Clarence Page of the Chicago Tribune A CREDIT TO HIS RACES May 1, 1997 "That's how race usually works in America. It's called the "one drop" rule, a peculiarly American paradox. It holds that if you have one drop of black blood in your family, you're black. In America, the one-drop rule goes back to plantation days, and it's been with us ever since. Homer Plessey, for example, looked white but he was 1/8 black. That's all it took in 1896 for the Supreme Court to decide in Plessey V. Ferguson but he could not ride in a railroad car reserved for whites as long as they were separate but equal facilities for blacks. The one-drop rule was invented by slave masters because they wanted to have more slaves. TODAY, IRONICALLY, THE ONE-DROP RULE HAS BEEN EMBRACED BY BLACK FOLKS BECAUSE WE WANT MORE BLACK FOLKS. AFTER ALL, GREATER NUMBERS TRANSLATE INTO GREATER POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CLOUT. So it's a big deal for racial and ethnic groups when the federal government decides which races are to be measured, which boxes are to be checked on the census form. The debate has never been more fierce than it is right now. It's even reached Capitol Hill. The number of marriages between people of different races has quadrupled since the 1960's. It keeps going up. It is not turning back."


OUR NATIVE AMERICAN PEOPLE HAVE GOT TO STOP THE PAPER AND MENTAL GENOCIDE. 


I will now take you on a journey of how our Native ancestors appeared to explorers from the early days of the 1500’s in the accounts of Spaniards and White men who came upon our people. I will show you the difference with the non-mixed Native of the 1500's to the present look with the mainstream Native American who is now put in the forefront by white media and American history books to conceal these facts from centuries ago.


ARTICLES, DRAWINGS, AND GENETICS

Fact: Many Natives in North America still carry this original curly or wavy hair texture, and it DOES NOT come from mixing with the European Invaders, or the African slaves brought to our land.


14 AUG 1800…registered free papers of “Hagar Jumper a dark brown Mulatto or Indian woman short bushy hair, obtained her freedom from Stephen Dance as being a descendant of an Indian.”

6 JAN 1776…Run way from the subcriber..Harry, Virginia Born, 5 feet 8 or 9 inches high, 30 years of age, a dark Mulatto, with long bushy hair, he is of the Indian Breed.

14 APR 1768….Isaac an Indian Slave aged about 40 years, run away from my plantation on George’s Creek in Buckingham. He was born and lived many years on the Brook of Chickahominy, and has some connexions in Goochland, where he may probably be at present. He wore long curled hair before his elopement, but his countenance and disposition are altogether Indian.


Anburey, a lieutenant in the British army in North America from 1776 to 1781, compiled his travel account from letters he wrote during the period. Engraver is probably Inigo Barlow, active ca. 1790.
Time Period: 1751-1800, Subject Area: Indigenous peoples
Geographic area: North America

PHOTO: NATIVE AMERICAN IN THE 1700'S




This is a recent photo of a man from the South American Amazon Forest tribe of Awa Natives. How is it that his hair is curly yet his tribe had no contact with other racial groups as far as mixing with them, but he carries the curly hair gene, yet many in error claim the curly hair texture comes from having African or white admixture. There is no known mixing of this tribe with people outside of their own tribe, this tribe is an isolated tribe.

Pictured: Karapiru of the Awá Tribe of the Amazon Rainforest




Columbus and the Natives of Cuba



YEAR - 1871 THE KU KLUX REPORT ON THE LOWERYS (379 Years Post-Columbus)

 "I think they are a mixture of Spanish, Portuguese, and Indian; about half of them have straight black hair, and many of the characteristics of the Cherokee Indians in our State; then, as they amalgamate and mix, the hair becomes curly and kinky, and from that down to real woollen hair; I think they are mixed Portuguese, Spaniard and Indians; I mean to class the Spaniards and Portuguese as one class, and the Indians as another class; I do not think that in class of population there is much negro blood at all; of that half of the
colored population that I have attempted to describe all have been always free; I was born among them, and I reckon that I know them perfectly well."


YEAR - 1841 George Catlin (349 Years Post Columbus) In the book Letters & Notes on the North American Indians

Indigenous Peoples of North America written in 1841, by Author George Catlin, a noted ethnographer describes American Indigenous Peoples of North America as: “All primitive tribes known in America are dark, copper-colored with jet-black hair while most possessed curls in the extreme (which today is considered wooly or bushy hair), and every level of wavy hair in between. The texture of the hair is generally fine, soft as silk or coarse and harsh” Catlin also noted, “The hair of men falling down to the hams and sometimes to the ground, is divided into plaits or slabs two inches wide, and filled with a profusion of glue and earth, which becomes very hard and remains unchanged from year to year. (Some Natives wore Dreads)

WHITE PERSONS ALSO COMPARED OUR SKIN TONE THE COLOR OF COPPER OR DARK COPPER

"Author George Catlin, a noted ethnographer describes American Indigenous Peoples of North America as: “All primitive tribes known in America are dark, copper-colored..."

Dark, Copper Colored (Native Skin)

Photo: Native of Wikwemikog Territory - Ontario,  Canada


Photo: Cherokee Woman, Western North Carolina, USA


Copper Penny from the 1800's likely the same kind used to example skin color of Natives

NOT THE FALSE REPRESENTATION OF "WORN PENNIES" THAT MANY AFROCENTRIC'S POST ON THE INTERNET IN ATTEMPTS TO CLAIM THEY ARE THE COPPER COLORED PEOPLE OF THIS, OUR NATIVE LAND... WHAT THEY SPEAK IS A LIE

Copper colored Native Man to the left in comparison to the Afrocentric's version of copper colored to the right


Even Older Writings and Paintings of Natives with

Curly Hair...

Diego Valadés Rhetórica Christiana Perugia: Pietro Giacomo Petrucci, 1579 (87 Years Post-Columbus)

Natives Depicted With Curly Hair being Christianized in a Group by the Spanish Priest

Now ask yourself why 87 year after Columbus don't we see any straight haired Natives? Because curly hair takes centuries to mix out of a massive population, that's why.



YEAR – 1511 to 1530, Peter Martyr d'Anghiera Journals called Décadas (38 Years Post Columbus)

"The men’s hair is long and reaches down to their waist. The women’s hair is even longer, and wavy. Members of both sexes tie their hair. They are beardless, and it is impossible to tell whether they are naturally so, or whether this is caused by the use of a drug, or because they pluck out their hair like the inhabitants of Tenochtitlán. At any rate, they like to be smooth-skinned."


De Ora Antarctica Vespucci, Amerigo (1451-1512) Painting of Curly Haired Natives


EXCERPT FROM: THE LETTERS OF AMERIGO VESPUCCI AND OTHER DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF HIS CAREER. Translated, with Notes and an Introduction, BY CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM, C.B., F.R.S., PRESIDENT OF THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY.

"They have no hair whatever on their bodies, but they have very long black hair, especially the women, which beautifies them..."

NOTICE THERE IS NO DISTINCTION IN HAIR TYPE OR TEXTURE ONLY HAIR LENGTH

Here is proof of where the Vespucci writing comes from



 YEAR -1505 De Novo Mundo (13 Years Post Columbus) A 1505 Latin edition published in Rostock,

De Novo Mundo

"Shows a nude male and female standing in graceful classical poses Vespucci's descriptions of the attractive physique typical of native women may have inspired the image of a voluptuous female with long curly hair."



Do you see the pattern of what is being stated?

Natives of the Americas had curly and wavy hair in years 1505, 1512,1530, 1579, 1841, and 1871 and even to this very day. No one could mix out curly hair in 87 years of being on our land with hundreds of millions of Natives living here with curly or wavy hair traits that existed her before Columbus. Not to mention curly hair being a dominate gene as well and some Native did not mix with the Whites or Spaniards that came to our land that is why many Natives still have the trait in their family.

It would take many centuries to mix out a strong genetic trait like curly hair.

Some whites do carry the curly hair genes because of their African Ancestors who existed before they became white close to 6000 years ago. The curly hair gene is a strong gene with all people of color no matter where they originate. The curly hair gene is a very hard gene to mix away completely and it can pop up after generations later after being dormant.  Read http://www.newnation.org/Millard/Mutant-SLC24A5.html


ITS ONLY AFTER ASSIMILATION DO YOU THEN SEE NATIVES PORTRAYED WITH STRAIGHT HAIR.

STEREOTYPING BROUGHT TO YOU BY WHITE, AMERICAN, SETTLERS:

IT IS FALSE THAT: All Native Americans have high cheek bones and long, black, straight hair.


OUR PEOPLE EVEN GET PUNISHED FOR SPEAKING UP http://www.turning-point.ca/?q=node/20383



Would you like more proof in support of Natives originally having curly and wavy hair Pre-Columbus?

Fact: Scientists have discovered that curly hair is the original hair texture of man in general. It is scientific fact that straight hair is a mutation that only came into existence some 65,000 years ago when Africans migrated into Asia and Europe.

“Straight hair seems to be a new trait in human evolution. It is associated with the newly emerged alleles in both the TCHH gene and EDAR gene. The distributions of these straight hair related alleles (see figure) support the hypothesis that our human ancestors had curly hair; the straight hair found in East Asians and Caucasians likely developed independently.”

See photos of South East Asians who still carry this original curly or non-straight hair gene:

Anyone else tired of the "admixture card" being thrown around by ignorant people who don't know real history, or who have a white man based agenda in place to cover up real traits of Native Americans.

 

Ask your self why do all indigenous people world wide have curly hair traits just like we do?

This poster from Southeast Asia had some real talk for those who like pulling the "Admixture Card" on indigenous peoples in their land.


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Well, I have natural wavy hair and so do a lot of people in my family. I've also seen many Filipinos and other Asians who have different hair textures. And guess what?

It has NOT A GOD DAMN THING TO DO WITH RACIAL ADMIXTURE!!!

Mongoloid hair IS NOT always straight! It can range from wavy to even curly as well. I'm sick of ignorant people always trying to associate certain physical traits with some form of racial admixture. That word "Australoid" for instance, gets thrown around here way too much in order to try to explain the different looks of Filipinos and other Asians. If it isn't Australoid, then it's probably Caucasoid next. Many of these different traits such as hair texture doesn't always have to be attributed to racial admixture. It could just be natural variation within a group. Any race can easily evolve different physical traits without the need for admixture from a foreign source."

_____________________________________________

What does all of this have to do with Natives? Good question.

Let look at some facts.

We never came from Asia, Africa, or Europe. But...Indigenous people worldwide do have similar traits though we are based and created in totally different lands. There is variety in physical traits in ALL indigenous people so no one should generalize our skin color, hair types, or even eye color because we are light and dark skinned, have brown, grey, and green eyes,  we also have curly, wavy and straight hair ( though the straight hair trait more than likely came from mixing with Whites and Spanish Moors). The land bridge was said to have been crossed by our people some 20,000 years ago which is false because Native oral history has been proven with archeology which so far suggest that our Native people have been in the Americas for “at the leastHUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF YEARS with finding at the Calico Dig (The Calico Early Man Site is an archaeological site in an ancient Pleistocene lake located near Barstow in San Bernardino County in the central Mojave Desert of southern California) and the (Hueyatlaco archeological site in the Valsequillo Basin near the city of Puebla, Mexico). We were created in this hemisphere by The Creator, and we came from nowhere else. We were originally a textured haired people of color, not Black African or any kind of African , not White, not Asian, not Middle Eastern, but Native to our western hemisphere.


MORE DRAWINGS DEPICTING NATIVES WITH CURLY HAIR

Latin : Novus orbis sive America Meridionalis et Septentrionalis : per sua regna, provincias et insulas iuxta observationes et descriptiones recentiss.

Translation: The new North and South America, or the world: through their realms, provinces and islands, according to the observations, and descriptions of recentiss.

Seutter, Matthaeus, Date: 1731
Location: America, Western Hemisphere

Engraving of Christopher Columbus's Discovery of America by

Theodor de Bry 1594




During Columbus time spent on the Island of Haiti, Columbus and his Visitgoth men hunted Taino Indians for sport. They beat, raped, tortured, andkilled them, and then like savages used Taino Indian bodies as feed for their hunting dogs.




Spanish Moors at the Panama Canal

Vasco Núñez de Balboa from northern Spain joined an expedition to the Americas in 1501 that landed in Panama.




Fact: Natives BEFORE Columbus and The African slaves came to our land had fine and soft, and at times bushy and coarse, wavy to curly hair. Curly hair is a dominant trait just as skin color is and brown eyes are. No one can get curly from straight hair its impossible, but you can loosen a curl when mixing with straight hair genes until it is mixed away from the genetics of a group of people. That mixing would take hundreds of years to do with selective breeding... something the white man has attempted in the reservation system and so far has succeeded with in North America’s Native populations on reservations, and in other parts of the western hemisphere with The Moors, and the introduction of foreign people into the gene pool of South Americans and many Mexican families since 1521. The mixing was intentionally imposed with the establishment of New Spain, and later with continued massive immigration  of more foreigners into Mexico and South America.

Note: "New Spain was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521. At its greatest extent, it included, on the mainland of the Americas, much of North America south of Canada, that is: all of present-day Mexico and Central America except Panama; most of the United States west of the Mississippi River, plus the Floridas."

Continued immigration into Mexico

"Over the centuries, Mexico has received immigrants from Europe, the Americas (e.g., the United States, Argentina, Brazil and Canada), and sometimes from Asia. Today, millions of their descendants still live in Mexico and can be found working in different industries"

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immigration_to_Mexico

 

Straight Native hair comes from centuries of mixing with the MOOR Spaniards, English, and French who came to our land, not to mention the community (isolate) based mixing that occurred between mixed Native people who had the same kinds of straight hair genes and you can see examples of this today on many reservations all across North America.

Again, Natives in South and  Central America had a different problem introduction to their genetics. Central and South American Natives more than any other group of Native people in the western hemisphere had an admixture of Spanish Moor blood, not Spanish white blood.

The White population in Spanish dwindled when the dark-skinned Moors  occupied the territory. The Moor population dominated Spain from the year 711 to the 1600's and they were in high populations during the time Columbus sailed with crews to the Americas until the Spanish took over much of the land in the Americas. The Moors lost power in 1492 BUT they remained in Spain under Christian rule. The Moors population was counted as at least 300,000 or more in Spain. The Moors were a dark skinned people of Arab, and possibly even some Black African descent.

Its truly amazing what information one can find in the mist of the pages of White hate groups.

In writing this FACTUAL writing within Chapter 23 of March of the Titans the white supremacist has confirmed The Spanish during Columbus's day were indeed Non-Whites

Link (tiera): March of the Titans: The History of the White Race  See Notes Chapter 23 of PDF file

  http://f3.tiera.ru/1/genesis/645-649/646000/7229e17fc3f8021bbda7c8b2614d2239

YET in America Arabs and North Africans are considered to be fully Caucasian European by American race identification standards. This is where we get the European trait when some Native people take DNA test, its not always White European as most assume, it is more than likely Spanish Moor European or Iberian due to the Arab race of most Moors in European who may also have some Black African genetics as well.

“The U.S. Census classifies Arabs as white along with the European majority, although a number of Arab Americans believe they are treated more like other ethnic minorities than European Americans.”

Moor Sailor

MOOR SAILORS OF SPAIN with Ponce de León who sailed with Christopher Columbus on Columbus' second voyage to the Americas.



Pictured: Spanish Moors holding two Caucasian Europeans Captive in Spain

 

NORTH AFRICAN BERBER MOORS OF TODAY WHO HAVE NEARLY EQUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPANISH MOORS OF SPAIN DURING COLUMBUS'S TIME, AND ALSO DURING THE SETTLMENTS OF NEW SPAIN IN THE AMERICAS.


Many Mexican DNA test results will say European, and at very high rates. But the fact is this European DNA is really North African DNA with Arab admixture. The Spanish were not always blue eyed and blonde haired Visigoth people. In fact the Spanish were at one time a North African people with Arab admixture, they resemble many of the the Mexican's we see today. The North African's controlled Spain from 711 to 1492, they were given the name Moors. The Moors were a North African people who had huge populations in Spain. Some studies suggest their populations reached well over a half a million in Spain, even during the time frame of the conquest of the Americas. The Spanish from this group also settled in New Spain a region that is now called Mexico, California, Arizona, Texas, and most of the western half of North America. These Spaniards had many children with indigenous women in the Americas. This is why the European DNA are very high among Mexicans.

Western Hemisphere Indigenous?


Western Hemisphere Indigenous?


GUESS AGAIN



North African woman

North African Woman


North African Woman

Tapestry from 1440 AD The Wild Men and Moors (The Moors are fighting the Visigoths/White Persons)

Photo: Visigoth of Spain before the Moor Conquest of 711 



Early Colonial Society (The Spanish in the Americas)

http://www.pbs.org/kcet/when-worlds-collide/essays/social-order-in-the-spanish-new-world.html

In the early 16th century, few women accompanied the Spanish men arriving in the Caribbean and Mesoamerica, which quickly created social conditions that favored an extensive intermixing of European and indigenous peoples. Very early on, Spanish men began living with indigenous women, taking native women as mistresses and, later, as wives. The Spanish Crown tried to engineer social policy to protect marriage between Spaniards by banning married men from traveling to the New World without their wives or, if they did go, requiring them to return to Spain or send for their wives within two years. These policies failed since the King had no way to enforce them. For a time, the Crown also prohibited unmarried women from emigrating unless they were servants or traveling with family members, leaving Spaniards in the New World with few available Spanish mates.

While the Spanish Crown struggled to preserve marriages between Spaniards, it also had a vested interest in colonizing the New World and realized that allowing Spanish men to marry indigenous women might encourage them to settle down and establish ties to certain regions. The Catholic Church generally supported, or at least did not oppose, such marriages; the Church hoped the marriages would facilitate the conversion of native people to Christianity and decrease the number of informal unions, which it considered sinful. Therefore, starting in the 1530s, Spain issued policies to encourage single Spanish men in Spanish America to wed. For example, a 1539 royal decree stated that encomiendas could only be given to married men and some posts in the local government were restricted in a similar way. Although it was more common for Spaniards to live with native women out of wedlock, some conquerors and colonists did marry indigenous women, most of them of noble descent.

Crew of the Santa Maria: * Cristobal Colon (Christopher Columbus), captain-general * Juan de la Cosa, owner and master * Diego de Arana, master-at-arms * Pedro de Gutierrez, royal steward * Rodrigo de Escobedo, secretary of the fleet * Rodrigo Sanchez, comptroller * Diego de Salcedo, servant of Columbus * Luis de Torres, interpreter * Rodrigo de Jerez * Alonso Chocero * Alonso Clavijo * Andres de Yruenes * Antonia de Cuellar, carpenter * Bartolome Biues * Bartolome de Torres * Bartolome Garcia, boatswain * Chachu, boatswain * Cristobal Caro, goldsmith * Diego Bermudez * Diego Perez, painter * Domingo de Lequeitio * Domingo Vizcaino, cooper * Gonzalo Franco * Jacomel Rico * Juan, servant * Juan de Jerez * Juan de la Placa * Juan Martines de Acoque * Juan de Medina * Juan de Moguer * Juan Ruiz de la Pena * Juan Sanchez, physician * Lope, joiner * Maestre Juan * Marin de Urtubia * Pedro de Terreros, cabin boy * Pero Nino, pilot * Pedro Yzquierdo * Pedro de Lepe * Rodrigo Gallego, servant

Crew of the Pinta: * Martin Alonso Pinzon, captain * Francisco Martin Pinzon, master * Cristobal Garcia Xalmiento, pilot * Cristobal Quintero, ship's owner * Francisco Garcia Vallejo * Garcia Hernandez, steward * Gomez Rascon * Juan Bermudez * Juan Quintero * Juan Rodriquez Bermejo * Pedro de Arcos * Alonso de Palos * Alvaro Perez * Anton Calabres * Bernal, servant * Diego Martin Pinzon * Fernando Mendes * Francisco Mendes * Gil Perez * Juan Quadrado * Juan Reynal * Juan Verde de Triana * Juan Vecano * Maestre Diego, surgeon * Pedro Tegero * Sancho de Rama

Crew of the Niña: * Vincente Yanez Pinzon, captain * Juan Nino, owner and master * Francisco Nino * Bartolome Roldan, apprentice pilot * Alonso de Morales, carpenter * Andres de Huelva * Bartolome Garcia, boatswain * Diego Lorenzo * Fernando de Triana * Garcia Alonso * Juan Arias, cabin boy * Juan Arraes * Juan Romero * Maestre Alonso, phyiscian * Miguel de Soria, servant * Pedro de Soria * Pero Arraes

Pictured: Spanish Moors



Moor (n.) Look up Moor at Dictionary.com "North African, Berber," late 14c., from Old French More, from Medieval Latin Morus, from Latin Maurus "inhabitant of Mauritania" (northwest Africa, a region now corresponding to northern Algeria and Morocco), from Greek Mauros, perhaps a native name, or else cognate with mauros "black" (but this adjective only appears in late Greek and may as well be from the people's name as the reverse). Being a dark people in relation to Europeans, their name in the Middle Ages was a synonym for "Negro;" later (16c.-17c.) used indiscriminately of Muslims (Persians, Arabs, etc.) but especially those in India.


The Moorish invasion of Spain was never completely repelled, a new genetic analysis reveals.

As many as one in 10 men from Spain and Portugal still carry genetic evidence of North African ancestry, and nearly twice that number had Sephardic Jewish ancestors, reveals a study in the Dec. 12 American Journal of Human Genetics.

_______________________________________________________

"In any event, the descendants of Muslims expelled from Spain are believed to number in the millions—possibly tens of millions—and most of them now live in North Africa. Observers say that by granting citizenship to all of them, Spain, virtually overnight, would end up with the largest Muslim population in the European Union.

Much of the Iberian Peninsula was occupied by Muslim conquerors known as the Moors from 711 until 1492, when the Moorish Kingdom of Granada surrendered to the Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon), in what is known as the Christian Reconquest.

But the final Muslim expulsion from Granada did not take place until over a century later, beginning in 1609, when King Philip III decreed the expulsion of the Moriscos.

The Moriscos—Moors who decided to convert to Catholicism after the Reconquest rather than leave Spain—were suspected of being nominal Catholics who continued to practice Islam in secret. From 1609 through 1614, the Spanish monarchy forced an estimated 350,000 Moriscos to leave Spain for Muslim North Africa.

Today, up to five million descendants of the Moriscos are living in Morocco alone; there are millions more living in Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Tunisia and Turkey."

http://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/4183/muslim-right-of-return-spain

________________________________________________

“The U.S. Census classifies Arabs as white along with the European majority, although a number of Arab Americans believe they are treated more like other ethnic minorities than European Americans.”

DNA testing has revealed that many Native persons of North, South, and Central America descent have significant European/Spaniard Moor DNA and also some pockets of White Spaniard ancestry as well.

I wondered how the Moor/Arab/Iberian DNA value could be so high in darker skinned persons of Spanish speaking decent in the Americas who also have Native ancestry. Many would think that all Spaniards were White but you will find that most Spaniards were actually Moors during Columbus's time and that could very well explain the George Lopez DNA test.

*Note: All three DNA test shown for celebrities mentioned have been taken by different DNA testing providers. Only one was taken by PBS - Prof. Henry Louis Gates Jr.,  and that test was done for Actress Eva Longoria.

Other DNA Studies

"DNA studies on Mexican-Americans show a higher European admixture. *Anthropologist Andrew Merriwether and colleagues conducted a study on Mexican-Americans living in Colorado. Using classic genetic markers they estimated an admixture of 67% European and 33% Native-American.

He further tested their mitochondrial DNA (mtdna) which is a test to find the origins of your great, great...grandmother, going back 10's of thousands of years. This one ancestor which is your families "Eve" so to speak, showed up as Native-American 85% of the time and European in origin 15% of the time. Thus showing that the majority of unions in this admixture were of European males and Native-American females.

"It is widely believed that a large percentage of the earliest settlers of Mexico may have origins in the Middle East and were a result of the expulsion of non-Catholics out of Spain, just before the conquest of Mexico. Did the early Iberian settlers of Mexico have proportionately different origins than modern day Spaniards?" Source: http://garyfelix.tripod.com/index63.htm

This study suggests that due to the hundreds of years of mixing that occured between Native women and Moor Spaniards in Mexico, Native DNA was diluted over those years by the Spanish Moor blood. It is factual that a strong Moor-Spaniard ancestry is now present in many Mexican Americans who previously had prevalent Native ancestry in the past.

___________

Celebrity George Lopez is a very dark-skinned Indigenous looking man based on what we were taught about the Americas in school and thru the media, but DNA has revealed that George Lopez is 55% European (Moor-Spanish), 32% Native American, 9% East Asian, and 4% African descent, this 55% may be in fact why Lopez still maintains his dark complexion and has very straight hair due to the dark-skinned Moor Arab mixture.


Another famous actor  of Central American heritage is Actress Eva Longoria who thought she has significant Native American ancestry but found out that she also had a low percentage as in 70% European (White -Spanish /possibly some Moor Spanish as well), 27% Native American, and 3% African.

 

Eva Longoria mother appears to be White Hispanic



Longoria is only 4% above in Native DNA than Cordozar Calvin Broadus (Snoop Dogg) who is 71% sub-Saharan African 6 % European (White English due the fact both his parent were born Misissippi, a White English settled area -not Spanish dominated) and 23% Native American. Note: Broadus is his Stepfathers name.



This should prove we should never assume a who is a Native person based on appearance alone, because that appearance alone is what white society has brainwashed us with for centuries. An appearance alone can fool anyone because white society moves toward a more European or Asian looking Native American, than the Natives that are wrongly assumed to be Mixed, or Black, or only Part Native American due to a bushy or curly hair texture. The European and Asian like looks only became mainstream for Natives after Natives were assimilated and immigration was the norm in our land.


*See more DNA results at bottom of page.



Facts:

• There was no land bridge crossing by Natives of the western hemisphere from Asia, or Africa, or anywhere else

• We were created in our land by The Creator Great Spirit

• We Natives are a unique people in the world

• We originally had soft and fine or coarse and rough and even bushy curly and wavy hair and did not need any African ancestor to have these Creator defined traits in our land of Creation

• We are a unique people in the world not Black, or White, not Asian, or Arab, but Native to our western hemisphere

• Straight hair is a genetic mutation that began in The African, Asian, and European societies about 65,000 years ago as discovered by scientists and that straight hair type did not originally exist in the western hemisphere among our people only after mixing with explorers did some, but not all, of our people began displaying straight hair.

• We have been in our land since the earth was created, and science has so far outdated the land bridge lie of 20,000 years in our land to hundreds of thousands of years “at the least” in which we existed in our land of the western hemisphere

• Many Natives by blood in North America have had their race changed to Black, Negro, Mulatto, White (those who could pass back in the day), Colored, and Latino as in Puerto Ricans, Cubans, etc. Also many Native American's from the main land of North America's east coast were brought as slaves to the Caribbean Islands.

"Pequot men, women, and children across southern New England until July when the last major engagement of the war took place in what is today the town of Fairfield. During this time and throughout the war, many captured Pequot men were killed, while women and children were given to colonists as spoils of war, placed in captivity under other tribes who had pledged their allegiance to the English, or transferred to the Massachusetts Bay Colony, sold into slavery, and shipped to the Caribbean islands and other British outposts." See more at: http://connecticuthistory.org/slavery-and-the-pequot-war

The rest of the main land Natives who were not reclassified were forced on government reservations in the main land where they at times were forced to mixed with each other, or take white husbands or wives. In Mexico and South America the Moor Spaniards were like an infestation on Natives from Mexico to the ends of South America. The Moor Spaniard has devastated the genetic makeup of many central and south Americans. 

• Many FULL BLOOD Natives in NORTH AMERICA were also reclassified to Black with the US census and vital records. This was due to extreme oppression and bias by White census takers and vital record employees who did not like our Native people who did not mix with Whites and carried the appearance of straight hair and very light skin provIng they had very  close White admixture. By having these European like traits it showed the census takers and vital record officials that this was a common practice within these Native families to marry White persons, and in doing so diluted the Native traits with each generation. This pleased the eugenicist who were already practicing paper genocide on Natives who had little, to no, White admixture.

• So with these facts don't ever let someone tell you that you are less Native because you have curly or wavy hair, even bushy or otherwise because the facts state that straight hair comes from a gene that has not existed longer than we have existed in our land.

•The facts show that Native's had curly and wavy hair BEFORE any other race of people came to our land and mixed with our people.

•Lastly you should never call you curly hair an Afro unless your truly an African American of Sub-Saharan African ancestry because "Afro" is derived from the term "Afro-American".


The fact is that curly hair is the first hair of our people, of man in general. Even first contact drawing by explorers shows this as fact regardless of what is seen as the mainstream norm today. Textured hair is the dominate hair in our hemisphere because it was created for us by The Creator in our hemisphere. Sadly some of our own people still teach their children to hate or deny their Native blood because of a hair texture that existed here in our land before any other race of people showed up to dilute it to the point where some of our people no longer have it.

Be proud of those curls and waves... our Indigenous Native American Ancestors passed them onto to our people.


GOVERNMENT RACE DATA:

Never let them call you Black, IF you are not Black DON'T ALLOW THEM TO WRITE THAT DOWN, OR SAY IT. Correct their verbal assumptions, don't let them write that down on any document they have that request you supply your race... check behind them or they will change your racial data on file to Black  behind your back if you don't keep up with it.


THE OUT OF AFRICA LIE:

Origins of Man

With O being the oldest blood in the world, and the world blood maps conclude O is dominate among western Hemisphere Natives why assume that everyone started out in Africa. We Native Americans look like everyone in the world we range in facial features, eye color, hair color, hair texture, and skin shades, so whose to say man did not begin in Native land here, and branch out to other parts of the world. If you csn beleive the story of Adam and Eve, or the Out of Africa theory why not challenge your mind to put the bigger puzzle pieces together. Our Native creation story is older than that of Adam and Eve, also our creation story involved MANY male and females being created, and not just two people who allegedly populated the whole world thru incestuous relationships with their own offspring. Not knocking the story of Jesus at all since Jesus was never a Christian nor was he blond haired or blue eyed. Jesus came into the world with a message of peace that got distorted by corrupt Romans who decided to make a profit and gain control our its own European population with a story far from the original story of Jesus. Christianity is a religion and our Creator does not honor religion, only our spirituality. But that's another story that will not be dealt with in this page. Just know that I am in agreement with those who come to shed light on the need for us all to return to our ORIGINAL spirituality in connection with our Creator, and that is the message Jesus brought to Mother Earth, nothing more nothing less.


  Super Continent and Science Facts

Fact: The oldest oceanic rocks are found adjacent to the offshore areas of eastern North America and northwestern Africa.

Fact: O is the oldest blood type in the world and it dominates the western hemispheres indigenous peoples.

http://anthro.palomar.edu/vary/vary_3.htm

"The O blood type (usually resulting from the absence of both A and B alleles) is very common around the world.  About 63% of humans share it.  Type O is particularly high in frequency among the indigenous populations of Central and South America, where it approaches 100%.  It also is relatively high among Australian Aborigines and in Western Europe (especially in populations with Celtic ancestors).  The lowest frequency of O is found in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where B is common.

 The majority of the people in the world have the Rh+ blood type.  However, it is more common in some regions.  Native Americans and Australian Aborigines were very likely 99-100% Rh+ before they began interbreeding with people from other parts of the world.  This does not imply that Native Americans and Australian Aborigines are historically closely related to each other."

The numbers of O's thin out as the maps reaches overseas, though O's remain in very high number in  North and South America.

So the next time you hear an "Out of Africa" story tell the one who is telling it to reverse the map, and try migrations out of the western hemisphere of all races of people since the first time man began existing on Mother earth.

ORIGINAL Native man has remained in this our place of creation since the beginning.


NATIVE AMERICAN'S WERE THE FIRST SLAVES IN OUR LAND, AND SOME OF OUR PEOPLE REMAINED SLAVES UNTIL SLAVERY WAS OUTLAWED IN AMERICA. IF NATIVE MOTHERS WERE BORN FREE SO WERE THE CHILDREN ALSO FREE. IF NATIVE MOTHERS WERE BORN INTO SLAVERY SO WERE THE CHILDREN ALSO SLAVES.


NATIVE AMERICAN SLAVE RECORDS. THIS IS IN NO WAY A FULL LIST.

THIS IS JUST THE TIP OF THE ICEBERG:

Augusta County, VA (Orders 1773-1779)

19 AUG 1777….Nat, an Indian boy in the custody of Mary Greenlee who detains him as a slave complains that he is held in unlawful slavery. Commission to take depositions in Carolina or elsewhere.

17 SEP 1777….On the complaint of Nat an Indian or Mustee Boy who says he is to be set free from service of Mary Greenlee…nothing appeared to this Court but a bill of sale for ten pounds from one Sherwood Harris of Granville County, NC that through several assignments was made over to James Greenlee deceased, late husband to the said Mary….said Mulattoe or Indian Boy is a free man and no slave.

( Nat was most likely half-Indian, so therefore Mulatto or Mustee could be used interchangeably, use of these terms were influenced by the status of his servitude)
Charles City County, VA (Orders 1687-95)

DEC 1690….Thomas Mayo an Indian belonging to Jno. Evans is adjudged 14 years old.

Chesterfield County, VA (Orders 1767-71)

6 APR 1770…On motion of Sibbell, an Indian woman held in slavery by Joseph Ashbrooke, have leave to prosecute for her freedom in forma pauperis.

- Sibbell an Indian wench V. Joseph Ashbrooke, for pltf. To take deposition of Elizabeth Blankenship and Thomas Womack.

- Sybill a Mulatto V. Joseph Ashbrooke – dismissed.

(Sibell was most likely less than full blooded Indian…she was described as Indian up to the point it was determined that she was legally a slave, then she was described as mulatto…use of the term is influenced by the status of her servitude)

Dinwiddie County, VA

18 AUG 1794...registered free papers of “Nancy Coleman a dark brown, well made mulatto woman..freed by judgement of the Gen’l Court of John Hrdaway being a descendant of an Indian.”

10 FEB 1798…registered free papers of “Daniel Coleman a dark brown free Negro, or Indian…formerly held as a slave by Joseph Hardaway but obtained his freedom by a judgment of the Gen’l Court.”

14 AUG 1800…registered free papers of “Hagar Jumper a dark brown Mulatto or Indian woman short bushy hair, obtained her freedom from Stephen Dance as being a descendant of an Indian.”

27 MAY 1805…registered free papers of “Betty Coleman a dark brown Negro woman…formerly held as a slave by John Hardaway…liberated by judgment of the Gen’l Court as descended of an Indian.”

Goochland County, VA

7 MAR 1756…Elizabeth, daughter of Ruth Matthews, a free mulattoe, baptized by the Rev. William Douglas of St. James Northam Parish.

26 SEP 1757….Cumberland County Court to bind out the children of Ruth Matthews, an Indian woman, to William Fleming.

(Ruth is described as ‘a free mulatto’ at one time, ‘an Indian’ at another.)

Henrico County, VA

5 MAY 1712…..Thomas Chamberlayne brings before this Court his servant Mulatto man Robin and informed the Court that he hath several times run away. Ordered to serve one year from (release date).

- Robin Indian (filed) against Major Chamberlayne…next Court.

FEB 1712….Robin Indian ordered free from Thomas Chamberlayne’s service at end of year’s service.

MARCH 1713….Thomas Chamberlayne against his servant Robin Mulatto hath unlawfully absented himself for 16 weeks.

(Robin is described as Mulatto until he is determined to be illegally held as a slave, then he is described as Indian…use of the term is influenced by his servitude…his former master tactfully uses the term Mulatto to influence the Court to return him to slavery)

APR 1722…Peg an Indian woman servant belonging to Richard Ligon appeared…be adjudged free..he be summoned.

JUN 1722…Peg a Mulatto servant born in this County whose mother was an Indian intitled to freedom at the age of thirty years, having petitioned for her freedom against her master Richard Ligon.

(Mulatto is used here to describe an Indian half-blood)

JAN 1737….petition of Tom a Mulatto or Mustee setting forth that he is the grandson of a white free woman and hast a just right to freedom but that his master Alexander Trent contrary to law or equity detains him in slavery.

(the terms Mulatto and Mustee are used here interchangeably)

JUL 1739…On the petition of Indian Jamey alias James Musttie is exempted from paying County Levyes.

NOV 1740…petition of Thomas Baugh it is ordered that the Church Wardens of Dale Parish do bind out Joe a Mulatto the son of Nan an Indian woman according to law.

(Mulatto is used here to describe an Indian half-blood)

18 NOV 1747….will of Richard Randolph…to my son John the third part of my slaves, he taking my two Negroes, Indian John and Essex as a part of his third which two Negroes I propose he should have.

(an Indian is described here as a ‘Negro’…the term is influenced by his servitude)

2 DEC 1754….Church wardens of Henrico Parish do bind out Ezekiel Scott and Sarah Scott, children of John Scott, Tommy son of Indian Nan, Henry Cockran son of John Cockran, and Isham Roughton an Indian according to Law.

5 MAR 1759….Ordered that the Church Wardens of Henrico Parish bind out Ben Scott and Roger an Indian Boy according to Law.

Lunenburg County, VA (Orders 1748-52)

JUL 1749…..Dublin an Indian of the Tugyebugg Nation came into Court and petitioned for her freedom, she being held in slavery.

Louisa County, VA

10 APR 1764…will of Patrick Belches…”to my wife Judy Belches all my land in Louisa..also the following Negroes to wit Indian Ben and wife Beck Kinney and their son Thom.”

1798…..Kinney family released from slavery based on testimony on William Denton that they descended from an Indian woman named Joan Kenny who was an elderly woman in 1729 and she came from the Indian town on Pamunkey.

(Indian Ben and Beck Kinney described as “Negroes’, later released based on being Indians...the term is based on their servitude)

Northumberland County, VA

OCT 1713…trial for examining George an Indian Mulatto criminal…inhabitant of Wiccomocoe Indian Town..for murdering Allen Dorrett…confesses he struck him with a stake…John Veazey carried him into the house of Indian John.

(use of the term Mulatto here to describe an Indian half-blood)

Stafford County, VA

Will Book Liber M, 1729-48….will of George Crosby…I bequeth unto George Crosby junior the son of my son George, one Indian mulatto woman Frank & her increase as also one Indian mulatto boy Jno Cooper.

(use of the term Mulatto here to describe an Indian half-blood)

Surry County, VA

2 JUL 1659…I Kinge of the Waineoaks doe firmely bargaine and make sale unto Elith Short her heires a boy of my Nacon named Weetoppin…until the full term of his life in consideration (of) a younge horse foale aged one yeare.

(not only did Indians sell their war captives into slavery, but they even sold their own)

20 MAR 1712….will of Francis Maybury…to wife Elizabeth, one Indian man named Robin and one Indian boy Jack and a mulatto girl.

20 AUG 1712…inventory of estate of Francis Maybury….two Indian slaves and one Indian Mulatto.

(girl first described as a mulatto later described as an Indian mulatto)

1741-1745…..Robin a Negro Man now in possession of Thomas Cocke, Gent., petitioning for leave to sue for his freedom.

- Robin, an Indian Plt. Against Thomas Cocke Genbt. Deft. In Trespass Assault and false imprisonment…We find that James Jones late of Prince George County in the year of our Lord 1693 was in the possession of an Indian girl named Sarah as a slave and that we did find the said girl in the year aforesaid was 4 years old. We find that the parents and Native Country of the sd. girl were Heathens and Idolators. We find that the aforesaid girl did live and die in the service of the aforesaid James Jones as a slave. We find that the Plt. Robin is the issue of the aforesaid Indian Sarah.

(Robin is described as a Negro until he proves his Indian descent, then he is described as Indian…use of the term is influenced by his servitude)

Sussex County, VA

1818…..”James Hix, a free man of color, brown complexion 34 years old, born free of Indian mother per certificate from Sussex County.”

(non-white persons are held under suspicion of servitude, and thus Negro ancestry, until proven otherwise)

Westmoreland County, VA

29 JAN 1700…..James Loggin, an Indian Mulatto, bound to Henry Wharton until the age of 21 by the Court.

(use of the term Mulatto here to describe an Indian half-blood)

Coastal North Carolina

“In 1761, The Rev. Alex Stewart baptized 7 Indians and mixed-blood children of the Attamusket, Hatteras, and Roanoke tribes and 2 years later he baptized 21 more.” – Swanton

North Carolina

1857…..a William Chavers (Chavis) was arrested and charged as a “free person of color” with carrying a shotgun, a violation on NC state law. He was convicted, but promptly appealed, claiming that the law restricted free Negroes not persons of color. The appeals court reversed the lower Court finding that, “Free persons of color may be, then, for all we can see, persons colored by Indian blood, or persons descended from Negro ancestors beyond the fourth degree.”

(desire of legal system to lump all non-whites into one category still exists in mid-1800’s)

1871……The North Carolina Joint Senate and House Committee interviewed Robeson County Judge Giles Leitch about the “free persons of color” residing within his county:

Senate: Half of the colored population?

Leitch: Yes sir; half of the colored population of Robeson County were never slaves at all…

Senate: What are they; are they Negroes?

Leitch: Well sir, I desire to tell you the truth as near as I can; but I do not know what they are; I

think they are a mixture of Spanish, Portuguese and Indian….

Senate: You think they are mixed Negroes and Indians?

Leitch: I do not think that in that class of population there is much Negro blood at all: of that

half of the colored population that I have attempted to decribe all have always been

free…They are called ‘Mulattoes’ that is the name they are known by, as

contradistinguished from Negroes…I think they are of Indian origin.

Senate: I understand you to say that these seven or eight hundred persons that you designate

as mulattoes are not Negroes but are a mixture of Portuguese and Spanish, white

blood and Indian blood; you think they are not generally Negroes?

Leitch: I do not think the Negro blood predominates.

Senate: the word ‘mulatto’ means a cross between the white and the Negro?

Leitch: Yes sir.

Senate: You do not mean the word to be understood in that sense when applied to these people?

Leitch: I really do not know how to describe those people.

THE KU KLUX REPORT ON THE LOWERYS

........."Giles Leitch the Judge previously referred to in these letter, gave before
Pool's Ku Klux Committee these figures:-

The county of Robeson had about one thousand five hundred white voting population before the close of the war; since the colored population has been enfranchised there are about three thousand voters in the county; of that 1500 additional voting population about half were formerly slaves, and the other half are composed of a population that existed there and were never slaves, and are not white, but who, since 1835 have had no right of suffrage; I think that about one-half of that additional 1,500 voters were this old free and
non white population: half the colored population of Robeson county were never slaves at all; in 1835 there was a State Convention which disfranchised them; up to that time they had exercised the elective franchise; the free negroes had exercised the elective franchise up to 1835; but Robeson county contained a larger number of them than most of the other counties; but really I do not know what these mulattoes of Scuffletown are.

**I think they are a mixture of Spanish, Portuguese, and Indian; about half of them have straight black hair, and many of the characteristics of the Cherokee Indians in our State; then, as they amalgamate and mix, the hair becomes curly and kinky, and from that down to real woollen hair; I think they are mixed Portuguese, Spaniard and Indians; I mean to class the Spaniards and Portuguese as one class, and the Indians as another class; I do not think that in class of population there is much negro blood at all; of that half of the
colored population that I have attempted to describe all have been always free; I was born among them, and I reckon that I know them perfectly well."

(Even person not considered to bear Negro ancestry could be called Mulattoes as late as the 1870’s….the term ‘Portuguese’ used here to infer Spanish and Indian ancestry….’Portuguese’ also used by persons of North Carolina origin residing in South Carolina, Tennessee, etc. to describe mixed Indian-white persons from the NC?VA border area during this same time period.)

Virginia Gazette

17 APR 1752…Run away from the subscriber, living in Hanover County, about the middle of March last, a young Indian fellow, named Ned, about 20 years of age, pretends to pass as a freeman.

(Ned’s identity as Indian influenced by his servitude)

14 APR 1768….Isaac an Indian Slave aged about 40 years, run away from my plantation on George’s Creek in Buckingham. He was born and lived many years on the Brook of Chickahominy, and has some connexions in Goochland, where he may probably be at present. He wore long curled hair before his elopement, but his countenance and disposition are altogether Indian.

2 AUG 1770…..Committed to the prison of York, a Negro Boy, who says he is free and was born in the Indian Town on Pamunkee River.

(York ’s identity as Indian influenced by his servitude)

23 NOV 1770….Prince George County…Runaway from the subscriber on Monday the 19th, a negro fellow named Frank…of a yellow complexion..He has a wife among the Indians, at Indian Town on Pamunkey River.

24 SEP 1772….committed to the public jail, from James City prison, a runaway woman named Molly, she belongs to Charles Budd of Charles City County…about 40 years old, has a prominent nose and by her complexion would pass for one of the Indian Race.

26 NOV 1772…Runaway from the subscriber in Cumberland a Mulatto Man named Jim who is a slave but pretends to have a right to his freedom. His father was an Indian of the name of Cheshire, and very likely will call himself James Cheshire, or Chink. He is a short well set fellow, about twenty seven years of age, with long black hair resembling an Indians.

(Use of Mulatto to describe Indian half-blood….use of term influenced by his servitude)

3 DEC 1772…Committed to the jail of Surry County, a Negro Man who says his name is Tom, and that he belongs to Benjamin Clements of Sussex…appears to be of the Indian Breed.

(person of obvious Indian ancestry described as a Negro)

13 JUL 1773….Runaway from the subscriber a Mulatto Slave named David…says he is of the Indian Breed, and went down to the General Court, as I imagine to sue for his freedom, but has never returned.

(David’s identity as Indian influenced by his servitude)

11 NOV 1773…Run away from the subscriber, last month, a Negro Man of the name Tom…of a yellowish complexion, much the appearance of an Indian…His hair is a different kind from that of a Negro’s, rather more of an Indian’s, but partaking of both.

(person of obvious Indian ancestry described as a Negro)

11 MAR 1775….Run away from the subscriber…a very bright Mulatto Man named Stephen…his wife Phebe went away with him, a remarkable white Indian woman.

6 JAN 1776…Run way from the subcriber..Harry, Virginia Born, 5 feet 8 or 9 inches high, 30 years of age, a dark Mulatto, with long bushy hair, he is of the Indian Breed.

(person of obvious Indian ancestry described as Mulatto)

2 DEC 1775…Bute County, NC…Run away from William Tabb, a slave named Charles, of the Indian Breed, about 23 years of age, with straight black hair, light complexion, raised in George County, VA.

South Carolina

1731…Special meeting of the South Carolina House of Commons after a member had announced that “Free colored men with their white wives have immigrated from Virginia with the intention of settling on the Santee River.”, report of Governor Robert Johnson: “I have had them before me in council and upon examination find that they are not Negroes nor slaves but free people, that the father of them here is named Gideon Gibson and his father was also free…”

1753….. Will of Alexander Wood, of St. James Goose Creek Parish, Planter, to his half-breed Indian Slaves named Dukey Cox and George Cox, born of his Indian slave named Jenny, and Minerva Watkins, born of his Indian Slave named Moll, manumission upon his death

1794….Issac Linagear, Isaac Mitchell, Joanthan Price, Spencer Bolton, William N. Swett, and 29 other “free persons of color seek to repeal the Act for imposing a poll tax on all Free negroes, Mustees, and Mulattoes. They wish to support the government, but the poll tax caused great hardship among free women of color, especially widows with large families. Tax collectors hunted them down and extorted payments.”

(desire of legal system to lump all non-whites into one category)

25 JUL 1795…A South Carolinian advertised in the North Carolina Central and Fayetteville Gazette….”$10 Reward to deliver to the subscriber in Georgetown, a Mustie servant woman named Nancy Oxendine, she is a stout wench, of a light complexion about 30 years old. It is supposed she has been travels away by her brother and sister, the latter lives in Fayetteville.”

Tennessee 1832….Madison County….”free man of color, Richard Matthews, seeks permission to marry a white woman. Matthews says he is of the Portuguese blood.”

(see Goochland County, VA for the Matthews family.) 1843…..McMinn County…George Sherman arrived in the state in 1839 and now asks permission to remain. “A certificate signed by a notary public in New York states that he is of Mulatto complexion with wooly hair and is an Indian, one of the Narragansett tribe.”

(an Indian described as having a Mulatto complexion)

1853 to 58 Claiborne County….suit pressed by school teacher Elijoh Goins, who alleged that his daughter’s husband “spoke false, malicious, scandalous and defamatory words saying the plaintiff was a mulatto, meaning a person of mixed blood one degree removed from a full blood Negro as reason of which several grievances the plaintiff hath been greatly damaged and subjected to the suspicion disgrace and insult to a family of a person of mixed blood.”

Legal Systems:

26 NOV 1722…residents of Northampton County, VA, petitioned the Court complaining “That a great number of Free Negroes Inhabiting within this County are great Grievances most particularly because the Negro Women pay no Taxes.” Virginina passed a law in May 1723 “That all free negros, mulattos, or Indians except tributary Indians to this government male and female, above the age of sixteen, and all wives of such Negroes, mulattos, or Indians shall be accounted tithables.”

1738…North Carolina “AN ACT to Prevent the concealment of the Tithables in the Several Countys within this Province” defines tithables as “every white Person Male of the age sixteen Years and upwards all Negroes Mulattoes Mustees Male or female and all Persons of Mixt Blood to the fourth Generation Male and Female of the Age of Twelve years and upwards.”

1749….North Carolina tithable law is amended to include “all White Persons intermarrying with any Negro, mulatto, or mustee, or other Person of Mixt Blood.”

(desire of legal system to lump all non-whites into one category)

1802….In the North Carolina case Gobu v. Gobu, the judge stated “I acquiesce in the rule laid down by the defendant’s counsel, with respect to the presumption of every black person being a slave. It is so, because Negroes originally brought to this country were slaves, and their descendants must continue slaves until manumitted by proper authority. If therefore a person of that description claims his freedom, he must establish his right to it by such evidence as will destroy the force of the presumption arising from his color.”

(all dark skinned persons are presumed to be descended from Negroes)"

ALL DARK SKINNED PERSONS ARE PRESUMED TO BE DESCENDED FROM NEGROES..

THIS WAS DONE TO KEEP FULL BLOOD NATIVES IN SLAVERY SHACKLES JUST AS THE BLACK AFRICAN WAS.


Diego Valadés Rhetórica Christiana Perugia: Pietro Giacomo Petrucci, 1579 Natives Depicted with Curly Hair
1505 Drawing of Natives with Curly Hair